In the panoramic view of HR #407 (Figure 7), the verse in the banner proclaims: "Ihr Nörgler all' aus jedem Stand, Komt mit wir in's Schlaraffenland. Seht hier stell ich's euch bildlich vor. Wer Nein sagt ist ein grosser Thor!" "All you grumblers from every station in life, come with me to Schlaraffenland. Look here, I am showing it to you. Whoever says no is a big fool!"
On the stein, we see two gentlemen, who obviously are not fools, arriving in Schlaraffenland and all the good things in life that they will no longer have to work for. Something that doesn't make much sense to me are the bags of money. While I can understand the satisfaction, and perhaps comfort, that comes from having money in one's pocket, or purse, in a land where everything is free for the taking, what need is there for money?
The stein in Figures 8 to 10 is salt glazed stoneware, or steinzeug, done in relief, with transfer and enamel décor. It is marked LB&C (Figure 11), has no model number and was manufactured by Hauber & Reuther as evidenced by the miniscule "gesetzlich geschützt" in Figure 11 and the HR capacity mark in Figure 12. To the best of my knowledge Hauber & Reuther was the only manufacturer to produce, or have produced for them, steins with the Schlaraffenland theme. The bases of both steins are similar, but of course, one is etched and the other is in relief. In Figure 13, we see an LB&C stein with an inlaid lid of an owl, which is original to the piece and in Figure 14 a lizard, or salamander handle. Neither the salamander nor the owl, have anything to do with the poem, so their presence on the stein, was somewhat of a mystery.
THE SCHLARAFFIA SOCIETY
At one time there were 144 Schlaraffia chapters in Germany alone. In 1935 Hitler ordered the society to expel all of its Jewish members. The society pretended to comply by removing those member's names from their membership lists. However, even though their names had been removed from the lists, all were encouraged to keep attending the meetings. Finally, in 1937 Hitler closed down the chapters for not complying with his orders, trashed their meeting halls, stripped the books from their library shelves and burned them.
After World War II it was still necessary for those members in Eastern Europe to meet secretly because the Society was banned by the Communists. Today they can once again meet openly in Prague where the society was founded. Below, in Figures 16 and 17 are a couple of modern Schlaraffia pins. The pin in Figure 16 is from Schlaraffia Vindobona. Vindobona is the ancient Roman name for what is now Vienna, Austria where this "Reych," or chapter is located.
Currently, the Schlaraffia Society has over 400 chapters worldwide, with some 12,500 members, about 1,000 of which reside in the United States. New Jersey alone has three chapters. The society has only two membership requirements, you must be male and you must speak German, or at least be willing to learn German. Their weekly meetings are held in halls called Burgs (Figure 18), where they dress in medieval costumes, address each other with humorous titles and German is the only language allowed. Religion, business and politics of a personal nature, are forbidden subjects within the Burg. All members are considered equals regardless of their occupation, or station in life. For a picture of a Schlaraffia meeting ca.1870-80, click here.
The LB&C steins could very well have been produced for sale to society members. In Figure 19 we see a panorama from Figures 8, 9 & 10, of two individuals dressed in medieval clothing with their street attire hanging on the bushes behind them; a glove, a top hat, a pair of long trousers and what appears to be a tie or cravat on one and a student jacket and a pipe on the other. This would seem to indicate that the characters are in costume only and not actually living in the middle ages.
A SCHLARAFFIA CHAPTER STEIN
Figures 20, 21, 22 and 23 are of a stein from an actual chapter of the Schlaraffia Society. The inscription, which is in the Bavarian dialect, reads: "Wenn's letzte Tröpferl von da Pip'm rinnt, wenn koana mehr zur Haustür aussifindt, wenn da Spielhahn balzt und da Gockl schreit, na is für d'Uhu erest zum Hoamgö Zeit." or, "When the last drop runs from the tap, when no-one can find his way to the door, when the wood-cock (grouse) performs the courtship dance and the cocks crow, only then is it time for the Eagle Owl to go home." Around the front half of the base is a dedication: "Die Activen i/l (ihrer lieben) Oberuhu "Zollkare" zum 26.10.03." or "(From) the Members (to) i/l (their dear) Chief Eagle Owl "Zollkare" on October 26, 1903." The use of "zum" before the date tells us the date is an anniversary of some kind. There are two exclamations, one on either side, Aha! and Uhu!. Aha! is the positive exclamation of "I told you so! Eurika! and Yes!" all rolled into one word and of course Uhu! is simply, but maybe a bit more than simply in this case, the German word for Eagle Owl. The lid is engraved with a monogram of the owner's initials and the names of 16 chapter members. This 1.0 liter steingut stein is marked E.D.& C. and was manufactured by Ernst Dorfner.
A SECOND SCHLARAFFIA CHAPTER STEIN
This second stein, in Figures 24, 25 and 26, is a 1.0 liter, salt glaze piece by Reinhold Merkelbach. It has a silver plated lid with an "Uhu" mounted top-center reading a book. The thumblift is a bust of a man holding a shield and dressed in renaissance style. It has an engraved inscription around the lid which reads: "Schlaraffia Monachia i/l Damian zum 50 Geburtstag", or "(From) Schlaraffia Monachia (to) i/l (their dear) Damian on his 50th birthday." All in all, a very nice stein. Figure 27 is the wappen of the Schlaraffia Monachia.
RUBBING A SALAMANDER
In Figure 14 we see a salamander handle. The first time I encountered the word salamander, as it related to beer, or beer steins, was in an article in the June 1986 Prosit. Jack Lowenstein had reprinted a section from the book "100 years of Brewing", The Western Brewer, H. S. Rich & Co., Chicago/New York 1903 (pp. 689-690); titled "Beer Drinking Customs at the University of Heidelberg, Baden." An excerpt follows: "The wretch who has lost his beer honor is indeed a pitiful case. Being declared under the ban by the president, he is forthwith "chalked down" (by a beer-honorable fox, as already described) with the opprobrious title, bierschisser, on the blackboard, the pillory of weak-kneed drinkers. From this ignominious position he can only extricate himself by "fighting out" after the manner to be hereafter explained. Meanwhile he can take no part in the musical diversions of the evening; he must not participate in the mysterious rite known as "rubbing a salamander"; he can not act as beer judge, umpire, or witness in a beer trial; he can not challenge any one to drink, or "drink in response" to any one who may challenge him; and generally he is in a very bad way."
In the following, the terms used are a mix of German and Latin. The translations are how we might expect to hear them in modern English. The word "salamander," in this case, is derived from the term "Sauft alle mit einander" (All drink together). However, the word Sauft means more than just drink; it is one of those over the top words meaning "get sloshed" or "guzzle." To have a Rubbing of the Salamander ("einem einen salamander reiben") proposed to you is evidently considered a great honor. As the leader, or toast giver, proposes to honor a guest or special person, all stand and lift their steins at the words of the leader, "Ad exercitium salamandris praeparatiestisne?" (Are you prepared to do the salamander?) The drinkers say in unison, "Sumus." (We are.) The leader further orders, "Salamandes inciptur, eins, zwei, drei," (Begin the salamander, one, two, three.) and each drinker rubs his stein on the table three times. The leader further instructs them with, "Bibte eins, zwei, drei" (Drink up, one, two, three) and all steins are emptied in unison to the count one, two, three. They are then rattled on the table till the leader once again says, "Eins, zwei" (one, two) and all steins are held still until the leader says,"Drei" (three) and all bang their steins on the table.
A variation of this is the "Trauersalamander." All done as before, except the glasses are "rubbed" in the air and they are stopped before striking the table. A silent, solemn ceremony honoring a departed brother.
I believe the student blazer and pipe on the bush behind the individual in Figure 8 and on the left in Figure 19, is the connection to the handle that identifies it as a salamander. Even if you don't agree with this assumption, you will at least know how to "rub a salamander" in case you are ever called upon to do so.
The lid in Figure 28 is the one David Harr installed on the piece in Figures 8 to 10, which also has a "Paragraph 11" thumblift seen in Figure 29. To refresh everyone's memory as to the meaning of Paragraph 11 is the following quote, again from "100 Years of Brewing": "The beer code, or Bier-Comment of the Senior University, Heidelberg, as it is officially known, has passed through several revisions and editions since 1829. In common with other university beer codes, however, the Heidelberg laws begin with paragraph 11. Paragraphs 1 to 10 are left blank, being presumably the ten commandments of the Old Testament. The eleventh paragraph, or commandment of Heidelberg University reads: Es wird fortgesoffen, or, freely translated, "Keep on drinking."
On the lid, which I feel is at least as appropriate, if not more so than the original, we see a robust gentleman with his bowl of dumplings, and on the table in front of him, more dumplings, a roast chicken, a loaf of bread, his 1.0 liter beer stein and a jug, on the floor beside him, for refills. All in all a great lid and thumblift for a stein representing the Glutton's Paradise. However, over the man's head is a sign, seen in Figure 30, that reads "Schweningerkur" and this was also a mystery.
I inquired on the SCI web site to see if anyone was familiar with the word and I received one reply that unfortunately was a good guess, but incorrect. That same day, I received an e-mail from Walt Vogdes to let me know that he had tried the Internet, and got a couple of hits on the word, but hadn't attempted to determine the word's meaning. So, I tried the Internet myself and got three hits. The first hit was for a book appropriately titled "Die Schweningerkur" and the other two were extracts from German publications that contained the word. The book had been written by one Oskar Mass and published in Berlin by Steinitz & Fischer in 1886. The second hit concerned a group of friends, one of whom was a former drunk and was now on the wagon after taking the Schweningerkur. The third was about a person who was traveling in the Middle East, was over weight, and wished they had had time to take the Schweningerkur before making the trip. Evidently the cure addressed both eating and drinking disorders. Was the Schweningerkur one of those fad cures that were very popular during the latter part of the 19th century, not unlike today's many fad diets? Possibly it was, because about six weeks after my inquiry, I received a second reply from an otherwise anonymous "Manfred." Apparently the Schweningerkur was devised by one Dr. Ernst Schweninger (1850-1924) (Figure 31) who in 1882, became the personal physician of Otto von Bismarck. Bismarck had both eating and drinking problems and Dr. Schweninger devised a plan of exercise and proper diet for him that helped him loose weight and keep it off. Bismarck declared that "Without him I would have died." After that, Dr. Schweninger became a "Celebrity Doctor" and in addition to Bismarck he became the personal physician to Alfred Krupp and Cosima Wagner. The "Schweningerkur" sign on this lid, may have been a reminder to the owner not to over indulge, or they might have to take the Schweningerkur.
My thanks to Walt Vogdes and Terry Hill for the information on "Rubbing a Salamander" and to Marc Lang and Walt Vogdes for help in decyphering the inscriptions on the Schlaraffia Society steins.
Lowenstein, Jack, Beer Drinking Customs at the University of Heidelberg, Baden, an excerpt from One Hundred Years of Brewing, the Western Brewer, H. S. Rich & Co., Chicago/New York, 1903 (pp. 689-690).
Oxford English Dictionary, vol. 18, Oxford: Clarendon, 1989.
Hinrichs, Hans, The Glutton's Paradise, Being a Pleasant Dissertation on Hans Sachs' Schlaraffenland and Some Similar Utopias, Peter Pauper Press, Mount Vernon/New York, 1955.